Unloading system "Otter 3m-Base": Front and rear view.

Unloading system "Otter 3m-Base": Front and rear view.

The azimuth from the northern direction relative to the meridian is determined clockwise from 0 to 360 ┬░.

Azimuth is also used to determine the target, orienteering, preparation of data for artillery fire.

Azimuth movement

If you have to move through unfamiliar terrain – without roads, in the woods, at night, in fog, without visible landmarks, and there is no map, the direction of movement can be determined by the magnetic azimuth on the compass.

To do this, based on the task and the required direction of the road, you must first select the route and determine the azimuth of each section of road – from one turn to another, as well as the distance to be traveled in each of these directions to reach the specified point. Thus, the movement in azimuth is the ability to find with a compass the specified or drawn direction and, following it, go to the desired point.

Magnetic azimuth is usually used to determine the direction of a local object. It is called the horizontal angle, measured clockwise from the north direction of the meridian to the direction of the object. It has a value from 0 ┬░ to Zb0 ┬░.

To determine the magnetic azimuth to a local object with a compass, face the object and orient the compass, then, holding the compass in an oriented position, set the visor so that the sight line – slot – front sight coincide with the direction of the local object. In this position, the mark on the limb against the pointer near the front sight is the value of the direct azimuth to the local object.

The reverse azimuth is the direction from the local object to its location. It differs from the direct azimuth by 180 ┬░.

To determine the inverse azimuth, add 180 ┬░ to the right angle if it is less than 180 ┬░, or subtract 180 ┬░ if it is greater than 180 ┬░.

When driving in azimuth, you need to know the magnetic azimuths from each point on the route and the distance between the points of movement "in pairs of steps" – "p-kr." (in a man of average height, two steps are approximately equal to 1.5 m). These data the commander of branch also makes out in the form of the scheme of a route of movement or the table.

When moving from one point to another, then follow the direction directly to the landmarks, and the distance is calculated "in pairs". At the initial return points at a certain azimuth with a compass find the direction of movement. In this direction, select and remember either a more distant landmark (auxiliary), or placed closer to the reverse point of the route (intermediate) landmark. If not from the intermediate landmark. you can see the reverse point, then determine the next landmark.

At night, silhouettes of local objects, lights, and bright stars are used as intermediate (or auxiliary) landmarks. If this is not possible, then the compass with a freely lowered arrow is always kept in front of him in an oriented position, and the direction of movement is taken as a straight line passing through the slot of the front sight.

Obstacle avoidance

If during the movement in azimuth in the open on the way there is an obstacle, you need to: remember the landmark on the opposite side of the obstacle in the direction of movement, determine the distance to it and add it to the path traveled. After that, bypassing the obstacle, approach the selected landmark and determining the direction of the path with a compass, continue moving.

In a closed area or in conditions of limited visibility (night, fog) the obstacle can be bypassed by a compass as follows:

a) reaching the obstacle (point 1), determine the azimuth of the new direction of movement along the obstacle to the right or left and continue to follow this azimuth, measuring the distance to the end of the obstacle (point 2); b) at point 2 record the distance traveled (1-2) and determine the direction of the initial azimuth, make a turn and move to point 3 (end of the obstacle), counting the steps; c) coming to point 3, move left (right) to point 4 in reverse azimuth to direction 1-2, until you have passed a path equal to the distance between points 1-2; d) at point 4 determine the direction of the initial azimuth and continue moving along it, adding to the distance traveled the length of the segment 2-3 (the width of the obstacle in the direction of the route).


Unloading systems: a brief description. Abstract

The unloading system is a set of pockets and the results integrated into a single set designed to carry ammunition and essentials

After World War II, the designers redoubled their efforts to improve the existing elements of the infantry equipment. Despite the fact that the infantry equipment as a whole corresponded to the then conditions of hostilities, but its significant shortcoming was in relative complexity. https://123helpme.me/ethan-frome/ The infantry equipment system consisted of a whole "lace" of bags and pouches. All of them were not securely fastened to the standard belt, the same movement in them caused inconvenience. In addition, such systems could not be quickly put on or taken off if necessary.

Also, as the development of existing weapons, the improvement of combat operations and the specialization of military crafts, each soldier had to carry a much larger set of ammunition, equipment and food, which are designed to maximize combat readiness on the battlefield. All this required qualitatively new transport systems, adapted to a wide variety of types of ammunition and equipment. The result of improvements was the emergence of unloading systems.

The unloading system is a set of pockets and the results integrated into a single set designed to carry ammunition and essentials.

Regardless of the classification, all unloading systems must meet a number of requirements:

unloading systems must be made of waterproof and fire-resistant materials capable of withstanding intensive operation in different climatic conditions; the system must evenly distribute the weight of the portable ammunition and equipment; provide comfort and an acceptable level of ventilation; the whole system must have fasteners that ensure its firm hold on the body of the shooter, quick dressing and dropping; easy access to all pockets and the results of the unloading system; carrying double ammunition for small arms ammunition; integration with various results, backpacks and rucksacks; if possible, the system should be modular so that the shooter can change the configuration of bags and pockets depending on the required types of ammunition and equipment. But modularity should not impair the mechanical strength and reliability of the whole system.

Systems can be classified as follows:

By layout they can be divided into:

actual unloading systems; unloading vests; combat bibs.

The basis of the unloading system is a belt and shoulder straps made of high-strength materials. Their size varies widely, which allows you to firmly and securely fit the entire system under the shooter, given its anthropometric features. Special locks allow the soldier to reset the system without much effort if necessary. On the belt and belts are attached the results of various purposes, rigidly connected to the system by means of locks. Whenever possible, try to make the results universal, adapted to carry a variety of items. In addition, they try to make the system modular: depending on the available weapons and the specifics of the operation, the system can be changed to other types of supplies.

One of the most common unloading systems in the world is the unloading system A. L. I. C. E. (USA) (English abbreviation from "all-purpose lightweight individual carrying equipment" – multi-purpose lightweight individual portable equipment). This system was developed in 1972 by the Natik Laboratory on the basis of a detailed analysis of the operation of the equipment during the fighting in Vietnam.

The system is made of moisture-resistant nylon. The basis of this system is a belt and two shoulder straps, which are adjustable in wide ranges. They were joined by: two pounds for ammunition for automatic weapons, a case for a sapper’s shovel, one or two flasks, and a pouch for a first aid kit or individual bandage. This is a standard kit for every infantryman. The standard system was integrated depending on the task with special nylon backpacks "medium" and large "backpack." Medium backpack can be used with or without a frame, "large" – only with a frame. The carrying capacity of the backpacks is 50 and 70 pounds, respectively. Backpacks are equipped with rubberized liners to protect the necessary equipment from moisture.


General view of the basic version of the unloading system A. L. I. C. E. (all-purpose lightweight individual carrying equipment): 1- belt; 2- results for small arms; 3- shoulder straps; 4- case for the trench tool; 5- fastenings for a flask; 6- pocket for an individual dressing package.

One of the most successful unloading systems in the CIS is the family of Russian unloading systems "Otter" (manufacturer – "Otter-K"). The unloading system is designed to carry ammunition and weapons, first aid kits, dry rations, and other property needed in a short (one day) raid. The vest is made of synthetic fabric of the increased durability. It consists of three parts: two chest panels, which perform the main function and carry the combat load, the back panel, which performs the auxiliary function and shoulder straps.

Unloading system "Otter 3m-Base": Front and rear view.

The system fastens on a body and is adjusted at the expense of the shoulder belts regulating a vest on growth, the chest and waist belts regulating a vest on volume. Shoulder straps 9 cm wide allow you to comfortably place on the body a fully equipped system, taking into account all the anthropometric properties of the shooter. The basis of the system is a grid that promotes air ventilation and rapid water leakage when forcing water obstacles. On the inside of the chest tablets there are two pockets for papers, which close on top with a Velcro fastener. Chest tablets are connected by straps on locks such as "Fastex" made of heat-resistant plastic, which gives the vest strength and allows you to drop or put it on in seconds.

On the chest tablet there are results that can hold up to 8 stores for the Kalashnikov rifle and six results for hand grenades type F-1. Inside the results for grenades, special rings are made, to which grenade rings are attached. This allows you to throw grenades with one hand. Double store results are closed by a common valve with a double clasp, which reduces their sudden opening.

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